Impact of maternal malaria and under-nutrition on intrauterine growth restriction: A prospective ultrasound study in Democratic Republic of Congo

S. H. Landis, V. Lokomba, C. V. Ananth, J. Atibu, R. W. Ryder, K. E. Hartmann, J. M. Thorp, A. Tshefu, S. R. Meshnick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations

Abstract

Maternal malaria and under-nutrition are established risk factors for small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births; however, whether malaria is associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is unknown. We investigated IUGR risk among 177 HIV-negative pregnant women enrolled in a longitudinal ultrasound study conducted in Democratic Republic of Congo from May 2005 to May 2006. Malaria infection, maternal anthropometrics, and ultrasound estimated fetal weight were measured monthly. All positive malaria cases were treated and intermittent presumptive therapy (IPTp) provided. Log-binomial regression models for IUGR were fitted using generalized estimating equations to account for statistical clustering of repeat IUGR measurements. Twenty-nine percent of fetuses experienced an episode of IUGR with the majority occurring in the third trimester. The risk of IUGR associated with malaria was greatest after three or more cumulative infections (RR 3.3, 95% CI 1.3-8.2) and was two- to eight-fold higher among women with evidence of under-nutrition. Receiving antimalarial treatment in the previous month (for IPTp or treatment) was significantly protective against IUGR (RR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.7). The interaction observed between malaria and under-nutrition suggests that antenatal programmes in malaria endemic areas should incorporate nutritional screening and supplementation in addition to IPTp.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)294-304
Number of pages11
JournalEpidemiology and Infection
Volume137
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009

Keywords

  • Congo
  • Intrauterine growth restriction
  • Malaria
  • Maternal nutrition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Infectious Diseases

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