Impact of natural gas extraction on PAH levels in ambient air

L. Blair Paulik, Carey E. Donald, Brian W. Smith, Lane G. Tidwell, Kevin A. Hobbie, Laurel Kincl, Erin N. Haynes, Kim A. Anderson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations

Abstract

Natural gas extraction, often referred to as "fracking," has increased rapidly in the U.S. in recent years. To address potential health impacts, passive air samplers were deployed in a rural community heavily affected by the natural gas boom. Samplers were analyzed for 62 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results were grouped based on distance from each sampler to the nearest active well. PAH levels were highest when samplers were closest to active wells. Additionally, PAH levels closest to natural gas activity were an order of magnitude higher than levels previously reported in rural areas. Sourcing ratios indicate that PAHs were predominantly petrogenic, suggesting that elevated PAH levels were influenced by direct releases from the earth. Quantitative human health risk assessment estimated the excess lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to the measured PAHs. Closest to active wells, the risk estimated for maximum residential exposure was 2.9 in 10 000, which is above the U.S. EPAs acceptable risk level. Overall, risk estimates decreased 30% when comparing results from samplers closest to active wells to those farthest. This work suggests that natural gas extraction may be contributing significantly to PAHs in air, at levels that are relevant to human health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5203-5210
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Volume49
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 21 2015

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 American Chemical Society.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry

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