Impact of time-varying treatment exposures on the risk of venous thromboembolism in multiple myeloma

Joshua D. Brown, Val R. Adams, Daniela C. Moga

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5 Scopus citations


Multiple myeloma (MM) has one of the highest risks of venous thromboembolism (VTE) of all cancers due to pathologic changes and treatment-related exposures. This study assessed the one-year incidence of VTE in newly diagnosed MM and to determine the baseline and time-varying treatment-related factors associated with VTE risk in a U.S.-based cohort. MM patients were identified and age, gender, and baseline comorbidities were determined. Treatment-related exposures included thalidomide derivatives (IMIDs), proteasome inhibitors, cytotoxic chemotherapy, steroids, erythropoietin-stimulating agents (ESAs), stem cell transplants (SCT), hospitalizations, infection, and central venous catheters (CVC). Multiple statistical models were used including a baseline competing risks model, a time-varying exposure Cox proportional hazard (CPH) model, and a case-time-control analysis. The overall incidence of VTE was 107.2 per 1000 person-years with one-half of the VTEs occurring in the first 90 days. The baseline model showed that increasing age, heart failure, and hypertension were associated with one-year incidence of VTE. MM-specific IMID treatment had lower than expected associations with VTE based on prior literature. Instead, exposure to ESAs, SCT, CVC, and infection had higher associations. Based on these results, VTE risk in MM may be less straightforward than considering only chemotherapy exposures, and other treatment-related exposures should be considered to determine patient risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number93
JournalHealthcare (Switzerland)
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments: Joshua D. Brown and Val R. Adams are supported by a grant from the Hematology/Oncology Pharmacists Association (HOPA). Daniela C. Moga is supported by grant number K12 DA035150 from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Office of Women’s Health Research and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. The project described was supported by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institutes of Health, through grant number UL1TR000117. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Case-time-control study design
  • Competing risks
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Multiple myeloma
  • Venous thromboembolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health Informatics
  • Health Policy
  • Health Information Management
  • Leadership and Management


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