Improving and Expanding Research on Burnout and Stress in The Academy: An Integrative Review

Adam N Pate, Brent N Reed, Jeffrey Cain, Lauren Schlesselman

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Objective. To conduct an integrative review of existing literature evaluating burnout and stress to identify reliable, valid, psychometrically sound survey instruments that are frequently utilized in published studies and to provide best practices in conducting burnout and stress research within academic pharmacy.Findings. 491 articles were reviewed finding 11 validated reliable surveys most frequently cited in literature that can be used in future burnout and stress research. Frequent misunderstandings and misuse of burnout and stress terminology along with inappropriate measurement were noted as well. Additionally, a variety of useful websites were identified during the review. Lastly, a relative dearth of published research evaluating organizational solutions to burnout and stress beyond personal factors, ie, resilience was identified.Summary. Burnout and stress among student pharmacists, faculty, and staff is an important research area that necessitates more robust, rigorous evaluation using validated reliable surveys with appropriate contextualization within psychological frameworks and theory. Future research evaluating organizational-level attempts to remedy sources of burnout and stress is also needed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8907
JournalAmerican Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
StateE-pub ahead of print - Jan 30 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2022 American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy.


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