In vivo reduction of chromium (VI) and its related free radical generation

K. J. Liu, X. Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

155 Scopus citations


Chromium (VI) compounds are widely recognized as human carcinogens. Extensive studies in vitro and in model systems indicate that the reactive intermediate, Cr (V), generated by cellular reduction of Cr (VI), is likely the candidate for the ultimate carcinogenic form of chromium compounds. Here we review our current understanding of the in vivo reduction of Cr (VI) and its related free radical generation. Our results demonstrate that Cr (V) is indeed generated from the reduction of Cr (VI) in vivo, and that Cr (V) thus formed can mediate the generation of free radicals. Cr (V) and its related free radicals are very likely to be involved in the mechanism of Cr (VI)-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. These studies also illustrate that in vivo EPR spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging can be very useful and powerful tools for studying paramagnetic metal ions in chemical and biochemical reactions occurring in intact animals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)41-47
Number of pages7
JournalMolecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 2001

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author would like to Dr. Goran Bacic for helping with the MRI ex periments. This research was supported in part by NIH/NIEHS Developmental Center Grant PZO ES 09871.


  • Chromium
  • EPR
  • Free Radical
  • MRI
  • Reactive oxygen species

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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