Incidence of Heart Failure Observed in Emergency Departments, Ambulatory Clinics, and Hospitals

Ricky Camplain, Anna Kucharska-Newton, Thomas C. Keyserling, J. Bradley Layton, Laura Loehr, Gerardo Heiss

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Reports on the burden of heart failure (HF) have largely omitted HF diagnosed in outpatient settings. We quantified annual incidence rates ([IR] per 1,000 person years) of HF identified in ambulatory clinics, emergency departments (EDs), and during hospital stays in a national probability sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2008 to 2014, by age and race/ethnicity. A 20% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries ages ≥65 years with continuous Medicare Parts A, B, and D coverage was used to estimate annual IRs of HF identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Of the 681,487 beneficiaries with incident HF from 2008 to 2014, 283,451 (41%) presented in ambulatory clinics, 76,919 (11%) in EDs, and 321,117 (47%) in hospitals. Overall, incidence of HF in ambulatory clinics decreased from 2008 (IR 22.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 22.0, 22.4) to 2014 (IR 15.0, 95% CI 14.8, 15.1). Similarly, incidence of HF-related ED visits without an admission to the hospital decreased somewhat from 2008 (IR 5.5, 95% CI 5.4, 5.6) to 2012 (IR 4.2, 95% CI 4.1, 4.3) and stabilized from 2013 to 2014. Similar to previous reports, HF hospitalizations, both International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification code 428.x in the primary and any position, decreased over the study period. More than half of all new cases of HF in Medicare beneficiaries presented in an ambulatory clinic or ED. The overall incidence of HF decreased from 2008 to 2014, regardless of health-care setting. In conclusion, consideration of outpatient HF is warranted to better understand the burden of HF and its temporal trends.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1328-1335
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Jun 1 2018

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The database infrastructure used for this project was funded by the Pharmacoepidemiology Gillings Innovation Lab (PEGIL) for the Population-Based Evaluation of Drug Benefits and Harms in Older US Adults (GIL 200811.0010), the Center for Pharmacoepidemiology, Department of Epidemiology, UNC Gillings School of Global Public Health; the CER Strategic Initiative of UNC's Clinical & Translational Science Award (UL1TR001111); the Cecil G. Sheps Center for Health Services Research, UNC; and the UNC School of Medicine.

Funding Information:
Sources of Funding: R. Camplain was supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute GRS Diversity Supplement ( HHSN268201100007C ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Elsevier Inc.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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