The pathogenesis of incipient Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been resistant to analysis because of the complexity of AD and the overlap of its early-stage markers with normal aging. Gene microarrays provide new tools for addressing complexity because they allow overviews of the simultaneous activity of multiple cellular pathways. However, microarray data interpretation is often hindered by low statistical power, high false positives or false negatives, and by uncertain relevance to functional endpoints. Here, we analyzed hippocampal gene expression of nine control and 22 AD subjects of varying severity on 31 separate microarrays. We then tested the correlation of each gene's expression with MiniMental Status Examination (MMSE) and neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) scores across all 31 subjects regardless of diagnosis. These well powered tests revealed a major transcriptional response comprising thousands of genes significantly correlated with AD markers. Several hundred of these genes were also correlated with AD markers across only control and incipient AD subjects (MMSE > 20). Biological process categories associated with incipient AD-correlated genes were identified statistically (EASE program) and revealed up-regulation of many transcription factor/signaling genes regulating proliferation and differentiation, including tumor suppressors, oligodendrocyte growth factors, and protein kinase A modulators. In addition, up-regulation of adhesion, apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and initial inflammation processes occurred, and down-regulation of protein folding/metabolism/transport and some energy metabolism and signaling pathways took place. These findings suggest a new model of AD pathogenesis in which a genomically orchestrated up-regulation of tumor suppressor-mediated differentiation and involution processes induces the spread of pathology along myelinated axons.
|Number of pages
|Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
|Published - Feb 17 2004
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