Increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 and bone sialoprotein response to human coronal caries

L. W. Boushell, H. Nagaoka, H. Nagaoka, M. Yamauchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Scopus citations


Background: It has been suggested that host matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) present in dentin may be involved in caries progression, however, its response to caries is not known. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) has been implicated in dentin mineralization and MMP-2 modulation. Objective: To identify and compare the distribution of MMP-2 and BSP in healthy human coronal dentin and those with early caries. Methods: Freshly extracted 3rd molars and premolars with and without early caries were fixed, demineralized and subjected to immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal anti-MMP-2 antibody and monoclonal anti-BSP antibody with an avidin-biotin complex method. Immunoreactivity was visualized with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine substrate and observed under light microscopy. Results: Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that MMP-2 and BSP are not detected in the tubule lumens of healthy dentin. However, intense immunoreactivity for MMP-2 and BSP was detected in association with the full length of the caries-affected dentinal tubules. The MMP-2 and BSP at the dentino-enamel junction appeared unaltered. Conclusion: The results indicate that MMP-2 and BSP may be actively secreted by odontoblasts in response to carious insult. MMP-2 and BSP accumulation in the caries-affected dentinal tubules may indicate their potential involvement in the host defense mechanism which results in calcification of regions affected by the carious process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)453-459
Number of pages7
JournalCaries Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • Bone sialoprotein
  • Dentin caries
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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