Indentation-induced tin whiskers on electroplated tin coatings

Fuqian Yang, Yan Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


The indentation-induced growth of tin whiskers/hillocks was observed for the tin coatings over copper substrate. There existed multiple tin whiskers/hillocks surrounding the indents in contrast to only a few whiskers/hillocks in the nonindented area. The number of the tin whiskers surrounding the indents increased with the increase in the indentation load and decreased with the increase in the thickness of the tin coatings. The formation and growth of the tin whiskers were due to the pressure gradient at the contact edge, which is qualitatively in accord with the analysis for the indentation of thin coatings with a power-law flow behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Article number113512
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2008

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
F.Y. is grateful to the Kentucky Science and Engineering Foundation for financial support of this work through Grant No. KSEF-148-502-06-180.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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