Depression is common in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and associated with inflammation. Inflammation contributes to the development of CVD and can be modulated by diet. However, the role of inflammatory properties of diet in the relationship between depressive symptoms and CVD risk is not well understood. We hypothesized that the inflammatory properties of diet mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and CVD risk in men and women. Cross-sectional data collected by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2014) were used for the study. Depressive symptoms scores, inflammatory properties of diet, and CVD risk were measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), and the Framingham risk score (FRS), respectively. Generalized linear models were used for the mediation analysis. There were significant differences in the proportions of men and women in the depressed group (PHQ-9 ≥ 10; 5.24 ± 0.65% vs 9.36 ± 0.87%, P <. 001) and high CVD risk group (FRS >20%; 16.47 ± 0.79% vs 6.03 ± 0.32%, P <. 001). The DII partially mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and CVD risk in men (indirect effect: 0.06, P =. 010) but fully mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and CVD risk in women (indirect effect: 0.10, P <. 001). These findings confirmed our hypothesis that inflammatory properties of diet at least partially mediate the relationship between depressive symptoms and CVD risk in men and women. Our findings suggest that interventions designed to reduce depressive symptoms should contain strategies to reduce pro-inflammatory and increase anti-inflammatory properties of diet to decrease CVD risk.
|Number of pages||9|
|State||Published - Feb 2020|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by Jonas Nurse Leaders Scholar Award. The contents of this manuscript are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the grant funding agencies. The authors declare no conflict of interest.
© 2019 Elsevier Inc.
- C-reactive protein
- Cardiovascular Disease Risk
- Dietary Inflammatory Index
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics