Influenza a in bovine species: A narrative literature review

Chithra C. Sreenivasan, Milton Thomas, Radhey S. Kaushik, Dan Wang, Feng Li

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations

Abstract

It is quite intriguing that bovines were largely unaffected by influenza A, even though most of the domesticated and wild animals/birds at the human–animal interface succumbed to infection over the past few decades. Influenza A occurs on a very infrequent basis in bovine species and hence bovines were not considered to be susceptible hosts for influenza until the emergence of influenza D. This review describes a multifaceted chronological review of literature on influenza in cattle which comprises mainly of the natural infections/outbreaks, experimental studies, and pathological and seroepidemiological aspects of influenza A that have occurred in the past. The review also sheds light on the bovine models used in vitro and in vivo for influenza-related studies over recent years. Despite a few natural cases in the mid-twentieth century and seroprevalence of human, swine, and avian influenza viruses in bovines, the evolution and host adaptation of influenza A virus (IAV) in this species suffered a serious hindrance until the novel influenza D virus (IDV) emerged recently in cattle across the world. Supposedly, certain bovine host factors, particularly some serum components and secretory proteins, were reported to have anti-influenza properties, which could be an attributing factor for the resilient nature of bovines to IAV. Further studies are needed to identify the host-specific factors contributing to the differential pathogenetic mechanisms and disease progression of IAV in bovines compared to other susceptible mammalian hosts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number561
JournalViruses
Volume11
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Keywords

  • Bovine
  • Bovine cell cultures
  • Bovine respiratory disease
  • Bronchopneumonia
  • Cattle outbreaks
  • Epizootic cough
  • Host restriction
  • Influenza A
  • MDBK cells
  • Ruminants
  • Seroprevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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