Influenza a in bovine species: A narrative literature review

Chithra C. Sreenivasan, Milton Thomas, Radhey S. Kaushik, Dan Wang, Feng Li

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


It is quite intriguing that bovines were largely unaffected by influenza A, even though most of the domesticated and wild animals/birds at the human–animal interface succumbed to infection over the past few decades. Influenza A occurs on a very infrequent basis in bovine species and hence bovines were not considered to be susceptible hosts for influenza until the emergence of influenza D. This review describes a multifaceted chronological review of literature on influenza in cattle which comprises mainly of the natural infections/outbreaks, experimental studies, and pathological and seroepidemiological aspects of influenza A that have occurred in the past. The review also sheds light on the bovine models used in vitro and in vivo for influenza-related studies over recent years. Despite a few natural cases in the mid-twentieth century and seroprevalence of human, swine, and avian influenza viruses in bovines, the evolution and host adaptation of influenza A virus (IAV) in this species suffered a serious hindrance until the novel influenza D virus (IDV) emerged recently in cattle across the world. Supposedly, certain bovine host factors, particularly some serum components and secretory proteins, were reported to have anti-influenza properties, which could be an attributing factor for the resilient nature of bovines to IAV. Further studies are needed to identify the host-specific factors contributing to the differential pathogenetic mechanisms and disease progression of IAV in bovines compared to other susceptible mammalian hosts.

Original languageEnglish
Article number561
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Bovine
  • Bovine cell cultures
  • Bovine respiratory disease
  • Bronchopneumonia
  • Cattle outbreaks
  • Epizootic cough
  • Host restriction
  • Influenza A
  • MDBK cells
  • Ruminants
  • Seroprevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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