Influenza causes millions of cases of hospitalizations annually and remains a public health concern on a global scale. Vaccines are developed and have proven to be the most effective countermeasures against influenza infection. Their efficacy has been largely evaluated by hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) titers exhibited by vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies, which correlate fairly well with vaccine-conferred protection. Contrarily, non-neutralizing antibodies and their therapeutic potential are less well defined, yet, recent advances in anti-influenza antibody research indicate that non-neutralizing Fc-effector activities, especially antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), also serve as a critical mechanism in antibody-mediated anti-influenza host response. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with Fc-effector activities have the potential for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of influenza infection. Inducing mAbs mediated Fc-effector functions could be a complementary or alternative approach to the existing neutralizing antibody-based prevention and therapy. This review mainly discusses recent advances in Fc-effector functions, especially ADCC and their potential role in influenza countermeasures. Considering the complexity of anti-influenza approaches, future vaccines may need a cocktail of immunogens in order to elicit antibodies with broad-spectrum protection via multiple protective mechanisms.
|State||Published - 2020|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments: We thank Ian Hauffe for proofreading this manuscript and other members of the Li and Wang laboratories for their input into this work, which was partially supported by NIH grant R01AI141889, by South Dakota State University agricultural experiment station (AES) 3AH-477, by National Science Foundation/EPSCoR (http://www.nsf.gov/od/iia/programs/epscor/index.jsp) award IIA1335423, and by the state of South Dakota’s Governor’s Office of Economic Development as a South Dakota Research Innovation Center.
© 2020 by the authors.
- Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC)
- Fc effector activities
- Non-neutralizing monoclonal antibody
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases