Influenza D virus: Serological evidence in the Italian population from 2005 to 2017

Claudia M. Trombetta, Serena Marchi, Ilaria Manini, Otfried Kistner, Feng Li, Pietro Piu, Alessandro Manenti, Fabrizio Biuso, Chithra Sreenivasan, Julian Druce, Emanuele Montomoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations


Influenza D virus is a novel influenza virus, which was first isolated from an ailing swine in 2011 and later detected in cattle, suggesting that these animals may be a primary natural reservoir. To date, few studies have been performed on human samples and there is no conclusive evidence on the ability of the virus to infect humans. The aim of this serological study was to assess the prevalence of antibodies against influenza D virus in human serum samples collected in Italy from 2005 to 2017. Serum samples were analysed by haemagglutination inhibition and virus neutralization assays. The results showed that the prevalence of antibodies against the virus increased in the human population in Italy from 2005 to 2017, with a trend characterized by a sharp increase in some years, followed by a decline in subsequent years. The virus showed the ability to infect and elicit an immune response in humans. However, prevalence peaks in humans appear to follow epidemics in animals and not to persist in the human population.

Original languageEnglish
Article number30
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 27 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank Emanuela Foni (Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia Romagna, Italy) and Mariette Ducatez (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA) and Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire de Toulouse (INP-ENVT), France) for kindly providing hyperimmune serum samples.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 by the authors.


  • Humans
  • Influenza D virus
  • Italy
  • Seroprevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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