Insight into Differences in Dietary Sodium Adherence between Men and Women with Heart Failure

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4 Scopus citations


Background Men with heart failure are reported to be less adherent to low-sodium diets than women are. One potential reason may be that men consume more food and, consequently, more sodium than women do. Objectives The aims of this study were to compare dietary sodium intake, urine sodium excretion, and sodium density of diet consumed between men and women with heart failure and to determine whether sex moderated the relationship of kilocalories (kcals) consumed with dietary and urine sodium. Methods A total of 223 patients with heart failure (mean age, 62 ± 12 years; 70% men, 46% New York Heart Association class III-IV) completed detailed 4-day food diaries and provided 24-hour urine sodium samples. To account for sodium density of food, dietary sodium and urine sodium were referenced to sodium per 1000 kcal. Results On an absolute basis, men consumed 23% more kcals and 28% more sodium than women did; 24-hour sodium excretion was 16% higher in men than in women. There were no differences between men and women when dietary sodium and urinary sodium were referenced to 1000 kcal, indicating they consumed foods with similar sodium density. However, both moderation analyses showed that the dietary sodium intake of men and women with lower kcal intake was similar, whereas men with higher kcal intake consumed more sodium-dense foods than women did. Conclusion The results suggest that the men with higher sodium intake than women had 2 reasons for nonadherence. They consumed more food and foods with higher sodium density than women did.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-136
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Nursing
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Professor and Senor Associate Dean, University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, Lexington. Debra K. Moser, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor and Linda C. Gill Chair in Cardiovascular Nursing, University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, Lexington. Misook L. Chung, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor, University of Kentucky, College of Nursing, Lexington. Funding: National Institute of Nursing Research (RO1NR009280 and P20NR0106791); American Heart Association, Great Rivers Affiliate Postdoctoral Fellowship; National Center for Research Resource (NIH UL1 RR025008); National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NIH UL1TR000117); General Clinical Research Centers NIH: Indiana University (M01RR000750); Atlanta Veterans Administration Medical Center; and Clarian Health Partners (Indiana).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


  • adherence
  • dietary sodium
  • gender differences
  • heart failure

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (all)


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