Instructive feedback: Effects of number and type

David L. Gast, Patricia Munson Doyle, Mark Wolery, Melinda Jones Ault, Joy L. Kolenda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


We evaluated the effects of presenting two instructive feedback stimuli of the same and different types for each target behavior taught. Four elementary school students with mild mental retardation were taught to name photographs of places of interest in the local community using constant time delay and instructive feedback. Initially, the four students were taught one set of photographs with one instructive feedback stimulus (name of the street on which the place was located) for each target photograph. All students learned to name all photographs, and three learned to name the street on which the place was located. The three students who learned to name the street for the place in the photograph were then taught three sets of photographs. Each set included two instructive feedback stimuli for each target photograph: Set 2 had one street name and one activity that occurred in the place; Set 3 had two activities per photograph, and Set 4 had one street name and one activity. The three students learned to name the photographs, but only learned to name the activities and not the street names that were presented through instructive feedback. These finds are discussed in terms of the factors that may control acquisition of instructive feedback stimuli and the implications for practice and future research.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)313-334
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Behavioral Education
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1994


  • constant time delay
  • instructive feedback
  • simultaneous presentation
  • students with mild mental retardation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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