Instructor strictness: instrument development and validation

T. Kody Frey, Nicholas T. Tatum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Three studies (N = 1,346) detail the development of three theoretically grounded instruments operationalizing instructor strictness. Using open-ended questionnaire data (n = 427), study 1 inductively derives an understanding of the instructor behaviors that students perceive as strict. These patterns of behavior are then condensed into a comprehensive item pool designed to measure the relevant constructs. Study 2 (n = 391) evaluates the underlying factor structures comprised by the patterns of strictness identified in study 1 through a series of exploratory factor analyses. Study 3 (n = 528) establishes factorial validity of each new measure through confirmatory factor analyses. Studies 2 and 3 also provide evidence for convergent and concurrent validity between the newly formed measures of evaluative, regulatory, and interactive strictness and relevant variables within the nomological network, including the Questionnaire on Teacher Interaction (QTI) strictness inventory, the QTI admonishing behavior inventory, instructor caring, and cognitive flexibility. The research provides a roadmap to investigate how instructors who enforce classroom rules or demonstrate inflexibility may influence instructional outcomes in nuanced ways. The theoretical and practical implications of the new measures for instructional communication research, as well as future directions, are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCommunication Education
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 National Communication Association.


  • classroom management
  • inflexibility
  • policies
  • strictness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Communication
  • Education


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