Interactive association of posttraumatic stress disorder, apolipoprotein ε4 genotype, and age on cognitive functioning

Karen A. Lawrence, Colton S. Rippey, Bianca Welikson, Robert H. Pietrzak, Thomas G. Adams

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: The ε4 allele of the apolipoprotein (APOE) gene and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are associated with cognitive deficits. Both associations may vary depending on age. No previous study has examined a possible three-way interaction between APOE ε4, PTSD, and age on cognitive functioning. Methods: Data were analyzed from 1244 European-American U.S. military veterans who participated in the 2011 National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS). Analyses of covariance were used to examine the main effects and interactions of APOE ε4, PTSD, and age on learning/working memory (LWM) and attention/psychomotor (APM) performance. Results: A significant three-way interaction between APOE ε4, PTSD, and age on the LWM composite (ηp2 = 0.011) was observed such that the main effect of APOE ε4 on LWM was only significant for older participants with PTSD. A significant two-way interaction between PTSD and age on the APM composite (ηp2 = 0.011) was observed such that the main effect of PTSD on APM was only significant in older participants. Conclusion: Older APOE ε4 carriers with probable PTSD showed poorer LWM performance relative to other groups. Aging-related associations on APM performance were most pronounced in veterans with PTSD. These data are preliminary evidence that identification and treatment of PTSD may be beneficial for individuals at risk for age-related cognitive impairment.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere5888
JournalInternational Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Volume38
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Keywords

  • APOE
  • PTSD
  • aging adults
  • cognitive decline
  • cognitive functioning
  • veterans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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