Interfacial polymerization for colorimetric labeling of protein expression in cells

Jacob L. Lilly, Phillip R. Sheldon, Liv J. Hoversten, Gabriela Romero, Vivek Balasubramaniam, Brad J. Berron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Determining the location of rare proteins in cells typically requires the use of onsample amplification. Antibody based recognition and enzymatic amplification is used to produce large amounts of visible label at the site of protein expression, but these techniques suffer from the presence of nonspecific reactivity in the biological sample and from poor spatial control over the label. Polymerization based amplification is a recently developed alternative means of creating an on-sample amplification for fluorescence applications, while not suffering from endogenous labels or loss of signal localization. This manuscript builds upon polymerization based amplification by developing a stable, archivable, and colorimetric mode of amplification termed Polymer Dye Labeling. The basic concept involves an interfacial polymer grown at the site of protein expression and subsequent staining of this polymer with an appropriate dye. The dyes Evans Blue and eosin were initially investigated for colorimetric response in a microarray setting, where both specifically stained polymer films on glass. The process was translated to the staining of protein expression in human dermal fibroblast cells, and Polymer Dye Labeling was specific to regions consistent with desired protein expression. The labeling is stable for over 200 days in ambient conditions and is also compatible with modern mounting medium.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere115630
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 23 2014

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
©2014 Lilly et al.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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