Intraoperative Optical and Fluorescence Imaging of Blood Flow Distributions in Mastectomy Skin Flaps for Identifying Ischemic Tissues

Siavash Mazdeyasna, Chong Huang, Alisha B. Paranzino, Mehrana Mohtasebi, Qiang Cheng, Lesley Wong, Guoqiang Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Summary: Insufficient blood flow causes mastectomy skin flap necrosis in 5 to 30 percent of cases. Fluorescence angiography with the injection of indocyanine green dye has shown high sensitivities (90 to 100 percent) but moderate specificities (72 to 50 percent) in predicting mastectomy skin flap necrosis. However, a number of challenging issues limit its wide acceptance in clinical settings, including allergic reaction, short time-window for observation, and high cost for equipment and supplies. An emerging inexpensive speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography technology enables noninvasive, noncontact, and continuous three-dimensional imaging of blood flow distributions in deep tissues. This preliminary study tested the hypothesis that speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography and indocyanine green-fluorescence angiography measurements of blood flow distributions in mastectomy skin flaps are consistent. Eleven female patients undergoing skin-sparing or nipple-sparing mastectomies were imaged sequentially by the dye-free speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography and dye-based commercial fluorescence angiography (SPY-PHI). Resulting images from these two imaging modalities were co-registered based on the ischemic areas with the lowest blood flow values. Because the ischemic areas have irregular shapes, a novel contour-based algorithm was used to compare three-dimensional images of blood flow distribution and two-dimensional maps of indocyanine green perfusion. Significant correlations were observed between the two measurements in all contours from a selected area of 10 × 10 mm2with the lowest blood flow (r ≥ 0.78; p < 0.004), suggesting that speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography provides the information for identifying ischemic tissues in mastectomy skin flaps. With further optimization and validation in large populations, speckle contrast diffuse correlation tomography may ultimately be used as a noninvasive and inexpensive imaging tool for intraoperative assessment of skin flap viability to predict mastectomy skin flap necrosis. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic, II.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)282-287
Number of pages6
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Volume150
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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