Investigation of enzyme formulation on pretreated switchgrass

Matthew Falls, Jian Shi, Mirvat A. Ebrik, Tim Redmond, Bin Yang, Charles E. Wyman, Rebecca Garlock, Venkatesh Balan, Bruce E. Dale, V. Ramesh Pallapolu, Y. Y. Lee, Youngmi Kim, Nathan S. Mosier, Michael R. Ladisch, Bonnie Hames, Steve Thomas, Bryon S. Donohoe, Todd B. Vinzant, Richard T. Elander, Ryan E. WarnerRocio Sierra-Ramirez, Mark T. Holtzapple

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


This work studied the benefits of adding different enzyme cocktails (cellulase, xylanase, β-glucosidase) to pretreated switchgrass. Pretreatment methods included ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX), dilute-acid (DA), liquid hot water (LHW), lime, lime+ball-milling, soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2). The compositions of the pretreated materials were analyzed and showed a strong correlation between initial xylan composition and the benefits of xylanase addition. Adding xylanase dramatically improved xylan yields for SAA (+8.4%) and AFEX (+6.3%), and showed negligible improvement (0-2%) for the pretreatments with low xylan content (dilute-acid, SO 2). Xylanase addition also improved overall yields with lime+ball-milling and SO 2 achieving the highest overall yields from pretreated biomass (98.3% and 93.2%, respectively). Lime+ball-milling obtained an enzymatic yield of 92.3kg of sugar digested/kg of protein loaded.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11072-11079
Number of pages8
JournalBioresource Technology
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 2011

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, contract number DE-FG36-07GO17102.


  • Enzymatic digestion
  • Pretreatment
  • Switchgrass
  • Xylanase
  • β-glucosidase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal


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