Oxidative stress has been shown to underlie neuropathological aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a highly reactive product of lipid peroxidation of unsaturated lipids. HNE-induced oxidative toxicity is a well-described model of oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration. GSH plays a key role in antioxidant defense, and HNE exposure causes an initial depletion of GSH that leads to gradual toxic accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In the current study, we investigated whether pretreatment of cortical neurons with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) and α-lipoic acid (LA) plays a protective role in cortical neuronal cells against HNE-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Decreased cell survival of neurons treated with HNE correlated with increased protein oxidation (protein carbonyl, 3-nitrotyrosine) and lipid peroxidation (HNE) accumulation. Pretreatment of primary cortical neuronal cultures with ALCAR and LA significantly attenuated HNE-induced cytotoxicity, protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, pretreatment of ALCAR and LA also led to elevated cellular GSH and heat shock protein (HSP) levels compared to untreated control cells. We have also determined that pretreatment of neurons with ALCAR and LA leads to the activation of phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), PKG, and ERK1/2 pathways, which play essential roles in neuronal cell survival. Thus, this study demonstrates a cross talk among the PI3K, PKG, and ERK1/2 pathways in cortical neuronal cultures that contributes to ALCAR and LA-mediated prosurvival signaling mechanisms. This evidence supports the pharmacological potential of cotreatment of ALCAR and LA in the management of neurodegenerative disorders associated with HNE-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, including AD.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||Free Radical Biology and Medicine|
|State||Published - Feb 1 2007|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Dr. Edgardo Dimayuga for technical advice and for providing some materials used in this study. We thank Sigma-Tau Pharma for the generous gift of ALCAR. This work was supported in part by grants from NIH [AG-05119; AG-10836].
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)