Iron-induced interleukin-6 gene expression: Possible mediation through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways

Jisen Dai, Chuanshu Huang, Jing Wu, Chengfeng Yang, Krystyna Frenkel, Xi Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations

Abstract

Increased iron store in the body may increase the risk of many diseases such as cancer and inflammation. However, the precise pathogenic mechanism of iron has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, the early biological responses of cells to iron treatment were investigated in AP-1 luciferase reporter stably transfected mouse epidermal JB6 cells and primary rat hepatocytes. It was shown that water-soluble iron compounds, such as FeSO 4 and Fe2(SO4)3, were more active in inducing AP-1 in JB6 cells than water-insoluble iron compounds, such as Fe 2O3 and FeS. Iron stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 MAPK but not c-jun NH2 terminal kinases (JNKs), both in JB6 cells and in primary rat hepatocytes, as determined by the phosphorylation assay. Interestingly, the increase in AP-1 luciferase activity by iron was inhibited by the pretreatment of the cells with PD98059, a specific MEK1 inhibitor, and SB202190, a p38 kinase inhibitor. Levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, were increased in JB6 cells by iron in a dose-dependent manner. The increase in IL-6 and its mRNA by iron was also eliminated by the pretreatment of the cells with PD98059 and SB202190. Since the IL-6 promoter contains an AP-1 binding site, our studies indicate that the iron-induced IL-6 gene expression may be mediated through ERKs and p38 MAPK pathways, possibly one of the important mechanisms for the pathogenesis of iron overload.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)199-209
Number of pages11
JournalToxicology
Volume203
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 15 2004

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This project was supported in part by grant OH 03561 from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and by the National Institute of Environmental Health and Science Center Grant ES00260.

Keywords

  • AP-1
  • Activator protein-1
  • ERKs
  • IL-6
  • Interleukin-6
  • Iron
  • JNKs
  • LMW
  • MAPK
  • activator protein-1
  • c-jun NH terminal kinases
  • extracellular signal-regulated kinases
  • interleukin-6
  • low molecular weight
  • mitogen-activated protein kinase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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