Is neuroinflammation in the injured spinal cord different than in the brain? Examining intrinsic differences between the brain and spinal cord

B. Zhang, J. C. Gensel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

57 Scopus citations

Abstract

The field of neuroimmunology is rapidly advancing. There is a growing appreciation for heterogeneity, both in inflammatory composition and region-specific inflammatory responses. This understanding underscores the importance of developing targeted immunomodulatory therapies for treating neurological disorders. Concerning neurotrauma, there is a dearth of publications directly comparing inflammatory responses in the brain and spinal cord after injury. The question therefore remains as to whether inflammatory cells responding to spinal cord vs. brain injury adopt similar functions and are therefore amenable to common therapies. In this review, we address this question while revisiting and modernizing the conclusions from publications that have directly compared inflammation across brain and spinal cord injuries. By examining molecular differences, anatomical variations, and inflammatory cell phenotypes between the injured brain and spinal cord, we provide insight into how neuroinflammation relates to neurotrauma and into fundamental differences between the brain and spinal cord.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)112-120
Number of pages9
JournalExperimental Neurology
Volume258
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported by a Kentucky Spinal Cord and Head Injury Research Trust (KSCHIRT) Fellowship (Bei Zhang), The University of Kentucky, and The Craig H. Neilsen Foundation. In addition, we would like to thank the editors and reviewer for their helpful suggestions.

Keywords

  • Adaptive immune response
  • Alternative activation
  • Anti-cd11d
  • Astrocyte
  • Autoimmune
  • B cell
  • Blood brain barrier
  • Blood spinal cord barrier
  • Gr1
  • Immune
  • Innate
  • Ly6c
  • Ly6g
  • Macrophage
  • Microglia
  • Monocyte
  • Neutrophil
  • Protective autoimmunity
  • SUR-1
  • Secondary cell death
  • Spinal cord injury
  • T cell
  • Translational
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Developmental Neuroscience

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