Is the gene pool of influenza viruses in shorebirds and gulls different from that in wild ducks?

Yoshihiro Kawaoka, Thomas M. Chambers, William L. Sladen, Robert Gwebster

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

264 Scopus citations


Evidence is presented for a second major gene pool of influenza A viruses in nature. Shorebirds and gulls harbor influenza viruses when sampled in the spring and fall. Approximately half of the viruses isolated have the potential to infect ducks but the remainder do not. The hemagglutinin subtypes that are prevalent in wild ducks were rare or absent in shorebirds and gulls.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)247-250
Number of pages4
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1988

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by a grant from the Delmarva Poultry Industry and by U.S. Public Health Research Grant Al 52!j86 from the Natlonal Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease, Cancer Center Support (CORE) Grant CA 21765, and American Lebanese Syrian Associated Charities. We are grateful to Drs. George Korch, Peter Barss, William James as well as Mike Harrison, Jocelyn Alexander, Taylor McLean, and Jane Arbuckle for assistance in the field, and to Dr. Peter Myers and their assistants for providing captured shorebirds for cloaca1 swabbing. James Watkins, Daniel Channel1 and Scott Krauss provided excellent technical assistance and we thank Glenith White and Melissa Pugh for typing the manuscript.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology


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