Isolation and development of bovine primary respiratory cells as model to study influenza D virus infection

Tirth Uprety, Chithra C. Sreenivasan, Shaurav Bhattarai, Dan Wang, Radhey S. Kaushik, Feng Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Influenza D virus (IDV) is a novel type of influenza virus that infects and causes respiratory illness in bovines. Lack of host-specific in vitro model that can recapitulate morphology and physiology of in vivo airway epithelial cells has impeded the study of IDV infection. Here, we established and characterized bovine primary respiratory epithelial cells from nasal turbinate, soft palate, and trachea of the same calf. All three cell types showed characteristics peculiar of epithelial cells, polarized into apical-basolateral membrane, and formed tight junctions. Furthermore, these cells expressed both α-2,3- and α-2,6-linked sialic acids with α-2,3 linkage being more abundant. IDV strains replicated to high titers in these cells, while influenza A and B viruses exhibited moderate to low titers, with influenza C virus replication not detected. These findings suggest that bovine primary airway epithelial cells can be utilized to model infection biology and pathophysiology of IDV and other respiratory pathogens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-99
Number of pages11
StatePublished - Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This study was supported by NIH R01AI141889 , Agricultural Experiment Station of the University of Kentucky , the William Robert Mills Chair Endowment Fund , and SDSU Agricultural Experiment Station Hatch grants # SD00H701-20 and 3AH-673 . We would also like to acknowledge the SDSU meat lab for providing tissue samples.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Elsevier Inc.


  • Bovine
  • Influenza D virus
  • Nasal turbinate
  • Primary cells
  • Respiratory epithelial cells
  • Soft palate
  • Trachea

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology


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