Kinomic exploration of temozolomide and radiation resistance in Glioblastoma multiforme xenolines

Joshua C. Anderson, Christine W. Duarte, Karim Welaya, Timothy D. Rohrbach, Markus Bredel, Eddy S. Yang, Nirmal V. Choradia, Jaideep V. Thottassery, George Yancey Gillespie, James A. Bonner, Christopher D. Willey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Background and purpose Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) represents the most common and deadly primary brain malignancy, particularly due to temozolomide (TMZ) and radiation (RT) resistance. To better understand resistance mechanisms, we examined global kinase activity (kinomic profiling) in both treatment sensitive and resistant human GBM patient-derived xenografts (PDX or "xenolines"). Materials and methods Thirteen orthotopically-implanted xenolines were examined including 8 with known RT sensitivity/resistance, while 5 TMZ resistant xenolines were generated through serial TMZ treatment in vivo. Tumors were harvested, prepared as total protein lysates, and kinomically analyzed on a PamStation®12 high-throughput microarray platform with subsequent upstream kinase prediction and network modeling. Results Kinomic profiles indicated elevated tyrosine kinase activity associated with the radiation resistance phenotype, including FAK and FGFR1. Furthermore, network modeling showed VEGFR1/2 and c-Raf hubs could be involved. Analysis of acquired TMZ resistance revealed more kinomic variability among TMZ resistant tumors. Two of the five tumors displayed significantly altered kinase activity in the TMZ resistant xenolines and network modeling indicated PKC, JAK1, PI3K, CDK2, and VEGFR as potential mediators of this resistance. Conclusion GBM xenolines provide a phenotypic model for GBM drug response and resistance that when paired with kinomic profiling identified targetable pathways to inherent (radiation) or acquired (TMZ) resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)468-474
Number of pages7
JournalRadiotherapy and Oncology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2014

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal Funds from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) , National Institutes of Health , under Contract No. HHSN261200800001E . The content of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services, nor does mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government. We also acknowledge NCI grant P20 CA151129 (GYG), S08-221ST T04 , and the National Brain Tumor Society Mary Catherine Calisto Systems Biology grant.


  • Array profiling
  • Glioblastoma
  • Kinomics
  • Temozolomide
  • Xenolines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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