Large-Scale Modeling and DR Control of Electric Water Heaters with Energy Star and CTA-2045 Control Types in Distribution Power Systems

Huangjie Gong, Evan S. Jones, A. H.M. Jakaria, Aminul Huque, Ajit Renjit, Dan M. Ionel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

This article proposes a generalized energy storage model for battery energy storage systems, electric water heaters (EWH), and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems to enable demand response control complying to Energy Star and CTA-2045 standards. The demand response control has been implemented in the DER integration testbed, which was originally developed by Electric Power Research Institute, to demonstrate that the 'energy content' and 'energy take' for BESS and EWH with mixing valve technology are comparable for typical residential ratings. A distribution power system was modeled using the modified IEEE 123-bus feeder system, measured residential loads, and EWH power simulated based on realistic hot water draws from CBECC-Res software. The demand response control, which complies to CTA-2045 standards was implemented to the EWHs considering the energy take values. Results demonstrate that the EWHs can be controlled to postpone the peak power at the distribution system level and provide a large amount of energy storage, while maintaining system robustness. The impact on occupant comfort was also analyzed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5136-5147
Number of pages12
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Volume58
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 1972-2012 IEEE.

Keywords

  • ANSI/CTA-2045-B
  • Alternative energy storage
  • Battery energy storage system (BESS)
  • Demand response (DR)
  • Electric water heater (EWH)
  • Energy star
  • Energy take
  • Home energy management (HEM)
  • IEEE 123-bus
  • OpenDSS
  • Power system
  • Voltage variation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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