Learning of subordinate category names by aphasic subjects: A comparison of deep and surface-level training methods

Robert C. Marshall, Donald B. Freed, Colleen M. Karow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


This study compared the effects of two cueing methods on aphasic subjects' learning and recall of unknown subordinate category names of dogs. One method, personalised cueing, required a deep level of stimulus processing. The second, phonological cueing, provided the subject with surface-level information about the target word's phonemic characteristics. A total of 30 aphasic subjects were assigned randomly to Personalised (PERS) or Phonological (PHON) training conditions. Training was identical for the groups with the exception that PERS group subjects created their own cues to aid recall of unknown dog names (e.g., Kuvasz), whereas PHON group subjects were provided a first phoneme cue (e.g., /kuh/) and the number of syllables in the dog's name by the examiner. During training, the examiner presented the personalised or phonological cue, and the subject named a coloured picture of the dog. Naming accuracy was measured across the 12 training trials. A dog name was considered as learned if the subject responded correctly after a personalised or phonological cue for the final four training trials. Recall of learned items was assessed with post-training probes 1 week, 1 month, and 6 months after completion of training. Subjects were not provided with cues for the probes. Subjects in the PERS group had significantly higher levels of naming accuracy after cues and recalled significantly more of the learned dog names on the probes. Findings confirmed the authors' hypothesis regarding the durability of personalised cueing in aiding subjects in learning unfamiliar names. Results of the study are discussed in terms of three attributes of traditional aphasic naming treatments put forth by Howard and colleagues (Howard et al., 1985): prompting, facilitation, and therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)585-598
Number of pages14
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Language and Linguistics
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Linguistics and Language
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • LPN and LVN


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