Limiting regimes for electron-beam induced deposition of copper from aqueous solutions containing surfactants

Samaneh Esfandiarpour, J. Todd Hastings

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Focused electron beam induced deposition of pure materials from aqueous solutions has been of interest in recent years. However, controlling the liquid film in partial vacuum is challenging. Here we modify the substrate to increase control over the liquid layer in order to conduct a parametric study of copper deposition in an environmental scanning electron microscope. We identified the transition from electron to mass-transport limited deposition as well as two additional regimes characterized by aggregated and high-aspect ratio deposits. We observe a high deposition efficiency of 1-10 copper atoms per primary electron that is consistent with a radiation chemical model of the deposition process.

Original languageEnglish
Article number155302
Issue number15
StatePublished - Jan 25 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CMMI-1538650. This work was performed in part at the University of Kentucky Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, the University of Kentucky Electron Microscopy Center, and the University of Louisville Micro and Nano Technology Center, members of the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (NNCI), which is supported by the National Science Foundation (ECCS-2025075). This work used equipment supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. CMMI-1125998.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 IOP Publishing Ltd.


  • Copper deposition
  • Direct write nanofabrication
  • Electron beam induced process
  • Limiting regimes for copper deposition
  • Liquid phase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry (all)
  • Materials Science (all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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