Introduction: In kindling, repeated electrical stimulation of certain brain areas causes progressive and permanent intensification of epileptiform activity resulting in generalized seizures. We focused on the role(s) of glutamate and a negative regulator of glutamate release, STXBP5/tomosyn-1, in kindling. Methods: Stimulating electrodes were implanted in the amygdala and progression to two successive Racine stage 5 seizures was measured in wild-type and STXBP5/tomosyn-1−/− (Tom−/−) animals. Glutamate release measurements were performed in distinct brain regions using a glutamate-selective microelectrode array (MEA). Results: Naïve Tom−/− mice had significant increases in KCl-evoked glutamate release compared to naïve wild type as measured by MEA of presynaptic release in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Kindling progression was considerably accelerated in Tom−/− mice, requiring fewer stimuli to reach a fully kindled state. Following full kindling, MEA measurements of both kindled Tom+/+ and Tom−/− mice showed significant increases in KCl-evoked and spontaneous glutamate release in the DG, indicating a correlation with the fully kindled state independent of genotype. Resting glutamate levels in all hippocampal subregions were significantly lower in the kindled Tom−/− mice, suggesting possible changes in basal control of glutamate circuitry in the kindled Tom−/− mice. Conclusions: Our studies demonstrate that increased glutamate release in the hippocampal DG correlates with acceleration of the kindling process. Although STXBP5/tomosyn-1 loss increased evoked glutamate release in naïve animals contributing to their prokindling phenotype, the kindling process can override any attenuating effect of STXBP5/tomosyn-1. Loss of this “braking” effect of STXBP5/tomosyn-1 on kindling progression may set in motion an alternative but ultimately equally ineffective compensatory response, detected here as reduced basal glutamate release.
|Journal||Brain and Behavior|
|State||Published - Sep 2017|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Award from the United States Department of Veterans Affairs Biomedical Laboratory Research & Development Service (to JTS), a grant from DARPA (N66001-09-C-2080; to GAG), and the NIH (HL56652; to SWW)
This work is supported by a Merit Review
© 2017 The Authors. Brain and Behavior published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Behavioral Neuroscience