Links Between Parenting and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems: Cross-Cultural Evidence from Ten Countries

Alexander T. Vazsonyi, Albert J. Ksinan, Magda Javakhishvili, J. Melissa Scarpate, Emily Kahumoku-Fessler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The present study tested the links between perceived maternal and paternal parenting and internalizing and externalizing problems across ten cultures (China, Czech Republic, Hungary, the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, and the United States). Self-report data were collected from N = 12,757 adolescents (Mage = 17.13 years, 48.4% female). Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses and structural equation models tested whether: (1) the six parenting processes (closeness, support, monitoring, communication, peer approval, and conflict; Adolescent Family Process, Short Form (AFP-SF, 18 items) varied across cultures, and (2) the links between parenting processes and measures of internalizing and externalizing problems varied across cultures. Study findings indicated measurement invariance (configural and metric) of both maternal and paternal parenting processes and that the parenting—internalizing/externalizing problems links did not vary across cultures. Findings underscore the ubiquitous importance of parenting processes for internalizing and externalizing problems across diverse Asian, European, Eurasian, and North American cultures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)667-683
Number of pages17
JournalChild Psychiatry and Human Development
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We are indebted to all the schools, its administrators, and the students who completed the surveys; we would also like to thank Drs. Ginesa Torrente-Hernandez, Chuen-Jim Sheu, Esra Burcu, and Li Huang for their assistance in collecting data in Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, and China, respectively. Partial support for data collections in Slovenia and the Czech Republic were provided to the first author by a Fulbright grant and by the Fulbright-Masaryk Distinguished Chair in Social Studies, respectively.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Closeness
  • Conflict
  • Cross-national
  • Family process
  • Measurement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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