Seed development in flowering plants is highly complex and governed by three genetically distinct tissues: the fertilization products, the diploid embryo and triploid endosperm, as well as the seed coat that has maternal origin. There are diverse cellular dynamics such as nuclear movement in gamete cells for fertilization, cell polarity establishment for embryo development, and multinuclear endosperm formation. These tissues also coordinate and synchronize the developmental timing for proper seed formation through cell-to-cell communications. Live-cell imaging using advanced microscopy techniques enables us to decipher the dynamics of these events. Especially, the establishment of a less-invasive semi-in vivo live-cell imaging approach has allowed us to perform time-lapse analyses for long period observation of Arabidopsis thaliana intact seed development dynamics. Here we highlight the recent trends of live-cell imaging for seed development and discuss where we are heading.

Original languageEnglish
Article number111485
JournalPlant Science
StatePublished - Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Elsevier B.V.


  • Confocal microscopy
  • Embryo
  • Endosperm
  • Fertilization
  • Seed
  • Semi-in vivo live-cell imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science


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