Local admixture of amplified and diversified secreted pathogenesis determinants shapes mosaic Toxoplasma gondii genomes

Hernan Lorenzi, Asis Khan, Michael S. Behnke, Sivaranjani Namasivayam, Lakshmipuram S. Swapna, Michalis Hadjithomas, Svetlana Karamycheva, Deborah Pinney, Brian P. Brunk, James W. Ajioka, Daniel Ajzenberg, John C. Boothroyd, Jon P. Boyle, Marie L. Dardé, Maria A. Diaz-Miranda, Jitender P. Dubey, Heather M. Fritz, Solange M. Gennari, Brian D. Gregory, Kami KimJeroen P.J. Saeij, Chunlei Su, Michael W. White, Xing Quan Zhu, Daniel K. Howe, Benjamin M. Rosenthal, Michael E. Grigg, John Parkinson, Liang Liu, Jessica C. Kissinger, David S. Roos, L. David Sibley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

193 Scopus citations

Abstract

Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent parasites worldwide, infecting many wild and domestic animals and causing zoonotic infections in humans. T. gondii differs substantially in its broad distribution from closely related parasites that typically have narrow, specialized host ranges. To elucidate the genetic basis for these differences, we compared the genomes of 62 globally distributed T. gondii isolates to several closely related coccidian parasites. Our findings reveal that tandem amplification and diversification of secretory pathogenesis determinants is the primary feature that distinguishes the closely related genomes of these biologically diverse parasites. We further show that the unusual population structure of T. gondii is characterized by clade-specific inheritance of large conserved haploblocks that are significantly enriched in tandemly clustered secretory pathogenesis determinants. The shared inheritance of these conserved haploblocks, which show a different ancestry than the genome as a whole, may thus influence transmission, host range and pathogenicity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number10147
JournalNature Communications
Volume7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 7 2016

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Sequencing, assembly and annotation for the Tg and Hh genomes reported here were supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services under contract number HHSN272200900007C. Additional analyses were provided by community-based efforts and included support from NIH grants AI059176 and AI036629 (L.D.S.) and the Canadian Institutes for Health Research grant MOP 84556 (J.P.). Data for the Sn annotation was generously provided by M.E.G. and J.P. prior to publication and was supported by the Intramural Research Program of NIAID at the NIH (M.E.G.). Additional computing resources were provided by the SciNet HPC Consortium. We acknowledge ToxoDB (http://toxodb.org/) for providing a publically available repository for all genomic data described here and for assistance in coordinating this study. OrthoMCL and ToxoDB are supported in part with funds from the NIAID, NIH, and Department of Health and Human Services under contract HHSN272201400030C (D.S.R. & J.C.K.).

Funding Information:
Sequencing, assembly and annotation for the Tg and Hh genomes reported here were supported by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Health and Human Services under contract number HHSN272200900007C. Additional analyses were provided by community-based efforts and included support from NIH grants AI059176 and AI036629 (L.D.S.) and the Canadian Institutes for Health Research grant MOP 84556 (J.P.). Data for the Sn annotation was generously provided by M.E.G. and J.P. prior to publication and was supported by the Intramural Research Program of NIAID at the NIH (M.E.G.). Additional computing resources were provided by the SciNet HPC Consortium. We acknowledge ToxoDB (http://toxodb.org/) for providing a publically available repository for all genomic data described here and for assistance in coordinating this study. OrthoMCL and ToxoDB are supported in part with funds from the NIAID, NIH, and Department of Health and Human Services under contract HHSN272201400030C (D.S.R. & J.C.K.).

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Physics and Astronomy

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