Long-term outcome after resection for bronchial carcinoid tumors

Mark K. Ferguson, Rodney J. Landreneau, Stephen R. Hazelrigg, Nasser K. Altorki, Keith S. Naunheim, Joseph B. Zwischenberger, Michael Kent, Anthony P.C. Yim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

156 Scopus citations


Objectives: We sought to determine the long-term survival of patients treated for bronchial carcinoid tumors and whether lesser resections have had an effect on outcomes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, multi-institutional review of patients treated surgically for primary bronchial carcinoid tumors since 1980. Operative approach, pathologic stage, histology, surgical complications, tumor recurrence, and long-term survival were assessed. Results: There were 50 men and 89 women with a mean age of 52.2±17.4 and 58.9±13.3 years, respectively (P=0.021). Men were more likely to be current or former smokers than were women. Operations included lobectomy or bilobectomy in 110, pneumonectomy in four, wedge resection in 22, and bronchial sleeve resection only in three patients; resection was performed thoracoscopically in six patients. One patient died postoperatively. Stages were I, 121; II, nine; III, six; and IV, three. Typical carcinoid tumors were stage I in 100 and more advanced (stages II-IV) in nine, whereas atypical carcinoid tumors were stage I in 18 and more advanced in eight (P=0.002). Median follow-up was 43 months (range 1-149) during which 21 (15%) patients died (four from recurrent cancer) and 19 patients (14%) were lost to follow-up. Recurrent cancer developed in 2/98 patients with typical and 5/25 patients with atypical subtypes (P<0.001; log-rank test). The likelihood of recurrence was related to histological subtype (relative risk 7.9 for atypical carcinoid; 95% confidence interval 1.4-43.5). Five-year survival was 88% for stage I patients and was 70% for patients with more advanced stages. When stratified by stage, survival was related to age (relative risk=1.9 for a 10 year increase in age; 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.9) and possibly to the histological subtype, but not to patient gender, year of operation, or type of operation performed. Conclusions: Either major lung resection or wedge resection is appropriate treatment for patients with early stage typical bronchial carcinoid tumors. Survival is favorable for early stage tumors regardless of histological subtype. Local recurrence is more common among patients with atypical subtypes, suggesting that a formal resection may improve long-term outcome. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)156-161
Number of pages6
JournalEuropean Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2000


  • Atypical carcinoid
  • Bronchial carcinoid
  • Bronchogenic carcinoma
  • Lung resection
  • Thoracoscopy
  • Typical carcinoid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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