Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a metabolic disease associated with obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) and chronic inflammation. Animal studies indicate that IR can be caused and/or exacerbated by systemic and/or tissue-specific alterations in lymphocyte differentiation and function. Human studies also indicate that obesity-associated inflammation promotes IR. Nevertheless, clinical trials with anti-inflammatory therapies have yielded modest impacts on established T2D. Unlike mouse models, where obesity is predominantly associated with IR, 20-25% of obese humans are metabolically healthy with high insulin sensitivity. The uncoupling of obesity from IR in humans but not in animal models advocates for a more comprehensive understanding of mediators and mechanisms of human obesity-promoted IR, and better integration of knowledge from human studies into animal experiments to efficiently pursue T2D prevention and treatment.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism|
|State||Published - Feb 1 2015|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (R21DK089270, R21DE021154, NIH R56 DK096525, 5T32AI007309-25). A.E.H. is supported by a grant from the National Children's Research Centre.
© 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
- Insulin resistance
- Lymphocyte subsets
- Type 2 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism