Lysholm and KOOS QoL Demonstrate High Responsiveness in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials

Varag Abed, Sabryn Kapp, Michael Nichols, Joshua P. Castle, David C. Landy, Caitlin Conley, Austin V. Stone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: There have been a large number of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) used to assess outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR). Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose was to determine which PROMs are being commonly used in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) to assess patients undergoing ACLR and to compare the responsiveness between them. It was hypothesized that the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score would be the most commonly used and responsive PROM among patients undergoing ACLR. Study Design: Meta-analysis. Level of evidence, 2. Methods: PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were followed, and relevant studies were extracted from the PubMed/MEDLINE and Web of Science databases. The inclusion criteria were English-language RCTs reporting on PROMs after ACLR. For articles meeting our inclusion criteria for responsiveness analysis (≥2 PROMs reported, 1 year minimum follow-up, and reported pre- and postoperative PROM means and standard deviations), the responsiveness between PROMs was compared using effect size (ES) and relative efficiency (RE). Results: A total of 108 articles met the inclusion criteria, comprising 9034 patients (mean age, 29.9 years; mean body mass index, 24.3; mean follow-up time, 36.1 months). There were 34 PROMs identified. The top 3 most commonly reported PROMs were the IKDC (n = 68; 63.0%), Lysholm (n = 65; 60.2%), and Tegner (n = 47; 43.5%) scores. The 2 PROMs with the highest ES were the ACL–Quality of Life (QoL) (3.37) and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) QoL (2.07) scores. Compared with other PROMs, Lysholm and KOOS QoL scores had the greatest RE values. The Lysholm score had a greater RE than the KOOS Pain (RE, 1.17), KOOS Symptoms (RE, 1.22), KOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (RE, 1.42), KOOS Sport/Recreation (RE, 1.55), KOOS QoL (RE, 1.41), and Tegner (RE, 2.89) scores. KOOS QoL had a greater RE than the IKDC (RE, 1.32), KOOS Pain (RE, 1.60), KOOS Symptoms (RE, 2.12), KOOS ADL (RE, 3.03), KOOS Sport/Recreation (RE, 1.27), and Tegner (RE, 2.06) scores. Conclusion: The IKDC score is the most commonly reported PROM in RCTs after ACLR; however, the Lysholm and KOOS QoL scores demonstrated the highest responsiveness in patients undergoing ACLR compared with other PROMs.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2024

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2024 The Author(s).

Keywords

  • ACL
  • ACLR
  • anterior cruciate ligament
  • anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction
  • patient-reported outcome measure
  • PROM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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