Macrophage angiotensin-converting enzyme reduces atherosclerosis by increasing peroxisome proliferator-Activated receptor α and fundamentally changing lipid metabolism

Duoyao Cao, Zakir Khan, Xiaomo Li, Suguru Saito, Ellen A. Bernstein, Aaron R. Victor, Faizan Ahmed, Aoi O. Hoshi, Luciana C. Veiras, Tomohiro Shibata, Mingtian Che, Lei Cai, Ryan E. Temel, Jorge F. Giani, Daniel J. Luthringer, Ajit S. Divakaruni, Derick Okwan-Duodu, Kenneth E. Bernstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aims: The metabolic failure of macrophages to adequately process lipid is central to the aetiology of atherosclerosis. Here, we examine the role of macrophage angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in a mouse model of PCSK9-induced atherosclerosis. Methods and results: Atherosclerosis in mice was induced with AAV-PCSK9 and a high-fat diet. Animals with increased macrophage ACE (ACE 10/10 mice) have a marked reduction in atherosclerosis vs. WT mice. Macrophages from both the aorta and peritoneum of ACE 10/10 express increased PPARα and have a profoundly altered phenotype to process lipids characterized by higher levels of the surface scavenger receptor CD36, increased uptake of lipid, increased capacity to transport long chain fatty acids into mitochondria, higher oxidative metabolism and lipid β-oxidation as determined using 13C isotope tracing, increased cell ATP, increased capacity for efferocytosis, increased concentrations of the lipid transporters ABCA1 and ABCG1, and increased cholesterol efflux. These effects are mostly independent of angiotensin II. Human THP-1 cells, when modified to express more ACE, increase expression of PPARα, increase cell ATP and acetyl-CoA, and increase cell efferocytosis. Conclusion: Increased macrophage ACE expression enhances macrophage lipid metabolism, cholesterol efflux, efferocytosis, and it reduces atherosclerosis. This has implications for the treatment of cardiovascular disease with angiotensin II receptor antagonists vs. ACE inhibitors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1825-1841
Number of pages17
JournalCardiovascular Research
Volume119
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • PPARα
  • angiotensin converting enzyme
  • atherosclerosis
  • lipid metabolism
  • macrophages

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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