Macrophage-Engineered Vesicles for Therapeutic Delivery and Bidirectional Reprogramming of Immune Cell Polarization

Khaga R. Neupane, J. Robert Mccorkle, Timothy J. Kopper, Jourdan E. Lakes, Surya P. Aryal, Masud Abdullah, Aaron A. Snell, John C. Gensel, Jill Kolesar, Christopher I. Richards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Macrophages, one of the most important phagocytic cells of the immune system, are highly plastic and are known to exhibit diverse roles under different pathological conditions. The ability to repolarize macrophages from pro-inflammatory (M1) to anti-inflammatory (M2) or vice versa offers a promising therapeutic approach for treating various diseases such as traumatic injury and cancer. Herein, it is demonstrated that macrophage-engineered vesicles (MEVs) generated by disruption of macrophage cellular membranes can be used as nanocarriers capable of reprogramming macrophages and microglia toward either pro- or anti-inflammatory phenotypes. MEVs can be produced at high yields and easily loaded with diagnostic molecules or chemotherapeutics and delivered to both macrophages and cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. Overall, MEVs show promise as potential delivery vehicles for both therapeutics and their ability to controllably modulate macrophage/microglia inflammatory phenotypes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3847-3857
Number of pages11
JournalACS Omega
Issue number5
StatePublished - Feb 9 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Published by American Chemical Society.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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