Macrophage-mediated neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the olfactory epithelium

A. S. Borders, M. A. Hersh, M. L. Getchell, N. Van Rooijen, D. A. Cohen, A. J. Stromberg, T. V. Getchell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Resident and recruited olfactory epithelial macrophages participate in the regulation of the survival, degeneration, and replacement of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). We have reported that liposome-encapsulated clodronate (Lip-C) induced selective and statistically significant depletion of macrophages in the OE of sham and 48 h OBX mice (38 and 35%, respectively) that resulted in increased OSN apoptosis and decreased numbers of mature OSNs and proliferating basal cells compared to controls (Lip-O). The aim of this study was to identify molecular mechanisms by which the selective depletion of macrophages in the OE resulted in these cellular changes by using a microarray expression pattern analysis. A 2X2 ANOVA identified 4,085 overall significantly (P < 0.01) regulated genes in the OE of Lip-O and Lip-C sham and 48 h OBX mice, and further statistical analysis using pairwise comparisons identified 4,024 genes that had either a significant (P < 0.01) treatment main effect (n = 2,680), group main effect (n = 778), or interaction effect (n = 980). The mean hybridization signals of immune response genes, e.g., Cxcr4, and genes encoding growth factors and neurogenesis regulators, e.g., Hdgf and Neurod1, respectively, were primarily lower in Lip-C mice compared with Lip-O mice. Apoptosis genes, e.g., Bak1, were also differentially regulated in Lip-C and/or OBX mice. Expression patterns of selected genes were validated with real-time RT-PCR; immunohistochemistry was used to localize selected gene products. These results identified the differential regulation of several novel genes through which alternatively activated macrophages regulate OSN progenitor cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation, and the survival of OSNs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)531-543
Number of pages13
JournalPhysiological Genomics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Nov 14 2007


  • Clodronate
  • Immune response
  • Liposomes
  • Microarray

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Genetics


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