Macrophage Repolarization as a Therapeutic Strategy for Osteosarcoma

Namrata Anand, Keng Hee Peh, Jill M. Kolesar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Macrophages are versatile immune cells and can adapt to both external stimuli and their surrounding environment. Macrophages are categorized into two major categories; M1 macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines and produce protective responses that lead to antimicrobial or antitumor activity. M2 or tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) release anti-inflammatory cytokines that support tumor growth, invasion capacity, and metastatic potential. Since macrophages can be re-polarized from an M2 to an M1 phenotype with a variety of strategies, this has emerged as an innovative anti-cancer approach. Osteosarcoma (OS) is a kind of bone cancer and consists of a complex niche, and immunotherapy is not very effective. Therefore, immediate attention to new strategies is required. We incorporated the recent studies that have used M2-M1 repolarization strategies in the aspect of treating OS cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2858
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • M1 macrophage
  • M2 macrophage
  • TAM
  • TME
  • osteosarcoma
  • polarization
  • repolarization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Macrophage Repolarization as a Therapeutic Strategy for Osteosarcoma'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this