Macrophage Repolarization as a Therapeutic Strategy for Osteosarcoma

Namrata Anand, Keng Hee Peh, Jill M. Kolesar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Macrophages are versatile immune cells and can adapt to both external stimuli and their surrounding environment. Macrophages are categorized into two major categories; M1 macrophages release pro-inflammatory cytokines and produce protective responses that lead to antimicrobial or antitumor activity. M2 or tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) release anti-inflammatory cytokines that support tumor growth, invasion capacity, and metastatic potential. Since macrophages can be re-polarized from an M2 to an M1 phenotype with a variety of strategies, this has emerged as an innovative anti-cancer approach. Osteosarcoma (OS) is a kind of bone cancer and consists of a complex niche, and immunotherapy is not very effective. Therefore, immediate attention to new strategies is required. We incorporated the recent studies that have used M2-M1 repolarization strategies in the aspect of treating OS cancer.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2858
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors received funding from Kentucky Pediatric Cancer Research Trust, which was funded through the KY Cabinet for Health and Family Services. The grant number is PON2 728 2000002500.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • M1 macrophage
  • M2 macrophage
  • osteosarcoma
  • polarization
  • repolarization
  • TAM
  • TME

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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