Macroscopic alignment of graphene stacks by langmuir-blodgett deposition of amphiphilic hexabenzocoronenes

Bo W. Laursen, Kasper Nørgaard, Niels Reitzel, Jens B. Simonsen, Christian B. Nielsen, Jens Als-Nielsen, Thomas Bjørnholm, Theis I. Sølling, Martin M. Nielsen, Oliver Bunk, Kristian Kjaer, Natalia Tchebotareva, Mark D. Watson, Klaus Müllen, Jorge Piris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


We present structural studies of Langmuir (L) and Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films of new amphiphilic hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) discotics, carrying five branched alkyl side chains and one polar group. The polar group is either a carboxylic acid moiety or an electron acceptor moiety (anthraquinone), Grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) and X-ray reflectivity, both utilizing synchrotron radiation, show that these amphiphilic HBCs form well-defined Langmuir monolayers at the air-water interface, with a π-stacked columnar structure where the HBC cores are rotated around the surface normal and tilted relative to the water surface. The intercolumnar distance is 20 Å. The HBCs are confined to a layer lying on top of the layer of polar groups that are in contact with the water subphase. Efficient transfer of the monolayer of the anthraquinone-substituted HBC derivative to hydrophobic quartz substrates by vertical dipping gave well-defined multilayer Y-type LB films. Polarized optical spectroscopy, GIXD, and X-ray reflectivity measurements show that the LB films consist of at least two phases. Heating the films results in an irreversible rearrangement to a single macroscopically aligned phase of hexagonally packed columns oriented along the dipping direction with disk planes perpendicular to the columnar axes and stacked in a cofacial manner. This phase transition is analogous to the reversible transition observed in the bulk material.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4139-4146
Number of pages8
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 11 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science (all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Spectroscopy
  • Electrochemistry


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