Markers of early changes in cognition across cohorts of adults with down syndrome at risk of alzheimer’s disease

Andrew J. Aschenbrenner, R. Asaad Baksh, Bessy Benejam, Jessica A. Beresford-Webb, Antonia Coppus, Juan Fortea, Benjamin L. Handen, Sigan Hartley, Elizabeth Head, Judith Jaeger, Johannes Levin, Sandra V. Loosli, Anne Sophie Rebillat, Silvia Sacco, Frederick A. Schmitt, Kate E. Thurlow, Shahid Zaman, Jason Hassenstab, Andre Strydom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


Introduction: Down syndrome (DS), a genetic variant of early onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD), lacks a suitable outcome measure for prevention trials targeting predementia stages. Methods: We used cognitive test data collected in several longitudinal aging studies internationally from 312 participants with DS without dementia to identify composites that were sensitive to change over time.We then conducted additional analyses to provide support for the utility of the composites. The composites were presented to an expert panel to determine the most optimal cognitive battery based on predetermined criteria. Results: There were common cognitive domains across site composites, which were sensitive to early decline. The final composite consisted ofmemory, language/executive functioning, selective attention, orientation, and praxis tests. Discussion:We have identified a composite that is sensitive to early decline and thus may have utility as an outcome measure in trials to prevent or delay symptoms of AD in DS.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere12184
JournalAlzheimer's and Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors.


  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Clinical trial outcome
  • Composite measure
  • Down syndrome
  • Early cognitive decline

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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