Introduction: Few studies have considered the importance of kin or extended family relationships on future orientation. Additionally, some of the underlying processes linking social bonds to future orientation remain poorly understood. Based on theoretical work focused on attachment and identity, this study tested the potential mediating effects of ethnic identity on the links between close relationships (maternal closeness and kinship ties) and future orientation over time. Specifically, the study tested the extent to which ethnic identity mediated the relationship between maternal closeness and future orientation, and the relationship between kinship ties and future orientation. In addition, it tested whether sex moderated the relationships between maternal closeness/kinship ties and future orientation measures (education and career) as well as between ethnic identity and future orientation measures. Methods: Self-report data were collected twice, approximately 6 months apart, during a school year from a sample of rural African American adolescents (n = 274, Mage = 14.81, SD = 1.48). Results: Findings provided evidence of mediation effects by ethnic identity on the relationships between maternal closeness and future orientation measures, and the link between kinship ties and future orientation measures. In addition, sex moderated the associations between ethnic identity and future education orientation as well as between maternal closeness and future education orientation; no moderation effects were found for the links with future career orientation measures. Conclusions: Maternal closeness and kinship ties appear to be critical for supporting ethnic identity and for developing educational and career future orientation among rural African American youth.
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Adolescence|
|State||Published - Apr 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors would like to thank the participants for making this study possible. Data collection was supported in part by a grant from USDA, National Research Initiative (00‐35401‐9256) and by a Competitive Research Grant from Auburn University to the third author.
© 2022 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.
- ethnic identity
- future orientation
- kinship ties
- maternal closeness
- rural African American
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Social Psychology
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Psychiatry and Mental health