Measurement of the Sixth-Order Cumulant of Net-Proton Multiplicity Distributions in Au+Au Collisions at s NN =27, 54.4, and 200 GeV at RHIC

M. S. Abdallah, J. Adam, L. Adamczyk, J. R. Adams, J. K. Adkins, G. Agakishiev, I. Aggarwal, M. M. Aggarwal, Z. Ahammed, I. Alekseev, D. M. Anderson, A. Aparin, E. C. Aschenauer, M. U. Ashraf, F. G. Atetalla, A. Attri, G. S. Averichev, V. Bairathi, W. Baker, J. G. Ball CapK. Barish, A. Behera, R. Bellwied, P. Bhagat, A. Bhasin, J. Bielcik, J. Bielcikova, I. G. Bordyuzhin, J. D. Brandenburg, A. V. Brandin, I. Bunzarov, J. Butterworth, X. Z. Cai, H. Caines, M. Calderón De La Barca Sánchez, D. Cebra, I. Chakaberia, P. Chaloupka, B. K. Chan, F. H. Chang, Z. Chang, N. Chankova-Bunzarova, A. Chatterjee, S. Chattopadhyay, D. Chen, J. Chen, J. H. Chen, X. Chen, Z. Chen, J. Cheng, M. Chevalier, S. Choudhury, W. Christie, X. Chu, H. J. Crawford, M. Csanád, M. Daugherity, T. G. Dedovich, I. M. Deppner, A. A. Derevschikov, A. Dhamija, L. Di Carlo, L. Didenko, X. Dong, J. L. Drachenberg, E. Duckworth, J. C. Dunlop, N. Elsey, J. Engelage, G. Eppley, S. Esumi, O. Evdokimov, A. Ewigleben, O. Eyser, R. Fatemi, F. M. Fawzi, S. Fazio, P. Federic, J. Fedorisin, C. J. Feng, Y. Feng, P. Filip, E. Finch, Y. Fisyak, A. Francisco, C. Fu, L. Fulek, C. A. Gagliardi, T. Galatyuk, F. Geurts, N. Ghimire, A. Gibson, K. Gopal, X. Gou, D. Grosnick, A. Gupta, W. Guryn, A. I. Hamad, A. Hamed, Y. Han, S. Harabasz, M. D. Harasty, J. W. Harris, H. Harrison, S. He, W. He, X. H. He, Y. He, S. Heppelmann, S. Heppelmann, N. Herrmann, E. Hoffman, L. Holub, Y. Hu, H. Huang, H. Z. Huang, S. L. Huang, T. Huang, X. Huang, Y. Huang, T. J. Humanic, G. Igo, D. Isenhower, W. W. Jacobs, C. Jena, A. Jentsch, Y. Ji, J. Jia, K. Jiang, X. Ju, E. G. Judd, S. Kabana, M. L. Kabir, S. Kagamaster, D. Kalinkin, K. Kang, D. Kapukchyan, K. Kauder, H. W. Ke, D. Keane, A. Kechechyan, Y. V. Khyzhniak, D. P. Kikoła, C. Kim, B. Kimelman, D. Kincses, I. Kisel, A. Kiselev, A. G. Knospe, L. Kochenda, L. K. Kosarzewski, L. Kramarik, P. Kravtsov, L. Kumar, S. Kumar, R. Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, J. H. Kwasizur, R. Lacey, S. Lan, J. M. Landgraf, J. Lauret, A. Lebedev, R. Lednicky, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Leung, C. Li, C. Li, W. Li, X. Li, Y. Li, X. Liang, Y. Liang, R. Licenik, T. Lin, Y. Lin, M. A. Lisa, F. Liu, H. Liu, H. Liu, P. Liu, T. Liu, X. Liu, Y. Liu, Z. Liu, T. Ljubicic, W. J. Llope, R. S. Longacre, E. Loyd, N. S. Lukow, X. Luo, L. Ma, R. Ma, Y. G. Ma, N. Magdy, R. Majka, D. Mallick, S. Margetis, C. Markert, H. S. Matis, J. A. Mazer, N. G. Minaev, S. Mioduszewski, B. Mohanty, M. M. Mondal, I. Mooney, D. A. Morozov, A. Mukherjee, M. Nagy, J. D. Nam, Md Nasim, K. Nayak, D. Neff, J. M. Nelson, D. B. Nemes, M. Nie, G. Nigmatkulov, T. Niida, R. Nishitani, L. V. Nogach, T. Nonaka, A. S. Nunes, G. Odyniec, A. Ogawa, S. Oh, V. A. Okorokov, B. S. Page, R. Pak, A. Pandav, A. K. Pandey, Y. Panebratsev, P. Parfenov, B. Pawlik, D. Pawlowska, H. Pei, C. Perkins, L. Pinsky, R. L. Pintér, J. Pluta, B. R. Pokhrel, G. Ponimatkin, J. Porter, M. Posik, V. Prozorova, N. K. Pruthi, M. Przybycien, J. Putschke, H. Qiu, A. Quintero, C. Racz, S. K. Radhakrishnan, N. Raha, R. L. Ray, R. Reed, H. G. Ritter, M. Robotkova, O. V. Rogachevskiy, J. L. Romero, L. Ruan, J. Rusnak, N. R. Sahoo, H. Sako, S. Salur, J. Sandweiss, S. Sato, W. B. Schmidke, N. Schmitz, B. R. Schweid, F. Seck, J. Seger, M. Sergeeva, R. Seto, P. Seyboth, N. Shah, E. Shahaliev, P. V. Shanmuganathan, M. Shao, T. Shao, A. I. Sheikh, D. Shen, S. S. Shi, Y. Shi, Q. Y. Shou, E. P. Sichtermann, R. Sikora, M. Simko, J. Singh, S. Singha, M. J. Skoby, N. Smirnov, Y. Söhngen, W. Solyst, P. Sorensen, H. M. Spinka, B. Srivastava, T. D.S. Stanislaus, M. Stefaniak, D. J. Stewart, M. Strikhanov, B. Stringfellow, A. A.P. Suaide, M. Sumbera, B. Summa, X. M. Sun, X. Sun, Y. Sun, Y. Sun, B. Surrow, D. N. Svirida, Z. W. Sweger, P. Szymanski, A. H. Tang, Z. Tang, A. Taranenko, T. Tarnowsky, J. H. Thomas, A. R. Timmins, D. Tlusty, T. Todoroki, M. Tokarev, C. A. Tomkiel, S. Trentalange, R. E. Tribble, P. Tribedy, S. K. Tripathy, T. Truhlar, B. A. Trzeciak, O. D. Tsai, Z. Tu, T. Ullrich, D. G. Underwood, I. Upsal, G. Van Buren, J. Vanek, A. N. Vasiliev, I. Vassiliev, V. Verkest, F. Videbæk, S. Vokal, S. A. Voloshin, F. Wang, G. Wang, J. S. Wang, P. Wang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, Z. Wang, J. C. Webb, P. C. Weidenkaff, L. Wen, G. D. Westfall, H. Wieman, S. W. Wissink, J. Wu, Y. Wu, B. Xi, Z. G. Xiao, G. Xie, W. Xie, H. Xu, N. Xu, Q. H. Xu, Y. Xu, Z. Xu, Z. Xu, C. Yang, Q. Yang, S. Yang, Y. Yang, Z. Ye, Z. Ye, L. Yi, K. Yip, Y. Yu, H. Zbroszczyk, W. Zha, C. Zhang, D. Zhang, J. Zhang, S. Zhang, S. Zhang, X. P. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhang, Z. J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, J. Zhao, C. Zhou, X. Zhu, Z. Zhu, M. Zurek, M. Zyzak

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7 Scopus citations

Abstract

According to first-principle lattice QCD calculations, the transition from quark-gluon plasma to hadronic matter is a smooth crossover in the region μB≤Tc. In this range the ratio, C6/C2, of net-baryon distributions are predicted to be negative. In this Letter, we report the first measurement of the midrapidity net-proton C6/C2 from 27, 54.4, and 200 GeV Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The dependence on collision centrality and kinematic acceptance in (pT, y) are analyzed. While for 27 and 54.4 GeV collisions the C6/C2 values are close to zero within uncertainties, it is observed that for 200 GeV collisions, the C6/C2 ratio becomes progressively negative from peripheral to central collisions. Transport model calculations without critical dynamics predict mostly positive values except for the most central collisions within uncertainties. These observations seem to favor a smooth crossover in the high-energy nuclear collisions at top RHIC energy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number262301
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Volume127
Issue number26
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 24 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the RHIC Operations Group and RCF at BNL, the NERSC Center at LBNL, and the Open Science Grid consortium for providing resources and support. This work was supported in part by the Office of Nuclear Physics within the U.S. DOE Office of Science, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Chinese Academy of Science, the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and the Chinese Ministry of Education, the Higher Education Sprout Project by Ministry of Education at NCKU, the National Research Foundation of Korea, Czech Science Foundation and Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic, Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office, New National Excellency Programme of the Hungarian Ministry of Human Capacities, Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Science and Technology of the Government of India, the National Science Centre of Poland, the Ministry of Science, Education and Sports of the Republic of Croatia, RosAtom of Russia and German Bundesministerium fur Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung and Technologie (BMBF), Helmholtz Association, Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (MEXT), and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American Physical Society.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy (all)

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