Measures of accuracy for active shoulder movements at 3 different speeds with kinesthetic and visual feedback

Timothy J. Brindle, Arthur J. Nitz, Tim L. Uhl, Edward Kifer, Robert Shapiro

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Study Design: Repeated-measures experiment. Objective: To compare measures of end point accuracy (EPA) for 2 feedback conditions: (1) visual and kinesthetic feedback and (2) kinesthetic feedback alone, during shoulder movements, at 3 different speeds. Background: Shoulder joint kinesthesia is typically reported with EPA measures, such as constant error. Reporting multiple measures of EPA, such as variable error and absolute error, could provide a more detailed description of performance. Methods and Measures: Subjects were seated with the shoulder abducted 90° in the scapular plane and externally rotated 75°, with the forearm placed in a custom shoulder wheel. Subjects internally rotated the shoulder 27° to a target position at 48° of shoulder external rotation for both conditions. Motion analysis was used to determine peak angular velocity and 3 EPA measures for shoulder movements. Each EPA measure was compared between the 2 feedback conditions and among the 3 speeds with a separate 2-way analysis of variance. Results: Movements performed with kinesthetic feedback alone, measured by constant error (P<.01), variable error (P<.01), and absolute error (P<.01), were less accurate than movements performed with visual and kinesthetic feedback. Faster movements were less accurate when measured by constant error (P = .01) and absolute error (P<.01) than slower movements. Subjects tended to overshoot the target in the absence of visual feedback; however, movement speed played minimal role in the overshooting. Conclusions: Multiple measures of EPA, such as constant, variable, and absolute error during simple restricted shoulder movements may provide additional information regarding the evaluation of a motor performance or identify different central nervous system control mechanisms for joint kinesthesia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)468-478
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2004


  • Kinesthesia
  • Proprioception
  • Target accuracy
  • Upper extremity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


Dive into the research topics of 'Measures of accuracy for active shoulder movements at 3 different speeds with kinesthetic and visual feedback'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this