1. Alterations of brain microvasculature and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity are commonly associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. These changes are most frequently found in human immunodeficiency virus-related encephalitis (HIVE) and in human immunodeficiency virus-associated dementia (HAD). 2. It has been hypothesized that the disruption of the BBB occurs early in the course of HIV-1 infection and can be responsible for HIV-1 entry into the CNS. 3. The current review discusses the mechanisms of injury to brain endothelial cells and alterations of the BBB integrity in HIV-infection with focus on the vascular effects of HIV Tat protein. In addition, this review describes the mechanisms of the BBB disruption due to HIV-1 or Tat protein interaction with selected risk factors for HIV infection, such as substance abuse and aging.
|Number of pages||19|
|Journal||Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology|
|State||Published - Feb 2005|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by NIH (NS39254, MH63022, and AA013843).
- Blood-brain barrier
- Brain endothelial cells
- Inflammatory responses
- Tight junction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
- Cell Biology