Metabolic and vascular imaging biomarkers in down syndrome provide unique insights into brain aging and Alzheimer disease pathogenesis

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15 Scopus citations

Abstract

People with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer disease (AD). Neuropathology consistent with AD is present by 40 years of age and dementia may develop up to a decade later. In this review, we describe metabolic and vascular neuroimaging studies in DS that suggest these functional changes are a key feature of aging, linked to cognitive decline and AD in this vulnerable cohort. FDG-PET imaging in DS suggests systematic reductions in glucose metabolism in posterior cingulate and parietotemporal cortex. Magentic resonance spectroscopy studies show consistent decreases in neuronal health and increased myoinositol, suggesting inflammation. There are few vascular imaging studies in DS suggesting a gap in our knowledge. Future studies would benefit from longitudinal measures and combining various imaging approaches to identify early signs of dementia in DS that may be amenable to intervention.

Original languageEnglish
Article number191
JournalFrontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Volume10
Issue numberJUN
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 21 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2018 Head, Powell and Schmitt.

Keywords

  • Dementia
  • FDG-PET
  • Hypermetabolism
  • Hypometabolism
  • MR spectroscopy
  • Myoinositol
  • T2*
  • Trisomy 21

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Cognitive Neuroscience

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