Microbiome profiles of ligature-induced periodontitis in nonhuman primates across the life span

Sreenatha Kirakodu, Jin Chen, Janis Gonzalez Martinez, Octavio A. Gonzalez, Jeffrey Ebersole

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20 Scopus citations


This investigation compared the microbiomes colonizing teeth during the initiation, progression, and resolution of periodontitis in nonhuman primates (Macaca mulatta) at different ages. Subgingival plaque samples were collected at baseline; 0.5, 1, and 3 months following ligature-induced periodontitis; and following naturally occurring disease resolution at 5 months. Samples were analyzed using 16S amplicon sequencing to identify bacterial profiles across age groups: young (3 years of age), adolescent (3 to 7 years), adult (12 to 15 years), and aged (17 to 23 years). -Diversity of the microbiomes was greater in the adult/aged samples than in the young/adolescent samples. -Diversity of the samples demonstrated clear age group differences, albeit individual variation in microbiomes between animals within the age categories was noted. Phylum distributions differed between the young/adolescent animals and the adult/aged animals at each of the time points, showing an enrichment of the phyla Spirochetes, Fusobacteria, and Bacteroidetes associated with periodontitis. Major differences in the top 50 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were noted in the young and adolescent microbiomes during initiation and progression postligation compared to the adult and aged animals. The proportions of a large number of species in the top 50 OTUs were lower at baseline and in resolved disease microbiomes in the young samples, while profiles in adolescent animals were more consistent with the disease microbiomes. Microbiome profiles for resolution for adults and aged animals appeared more resilient and generally maintained a pattern similar to that of disease. Use of the model can expand our understanding of the crucial interactions of the oral microbiome and host responses in periodontitis.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere00067-19
JournalInfection and Immunity
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2019

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2019 American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


  • Microbiome
  • Nonhuman primates
  • Periodontitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Infectious Diseases


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