Microelectrode array fabrication and optimization for selective neurochemical detection

Kevin N. Hascup, Erin R. Hascup, O. Meagan Littrell, Jason M. Hinzman, Catherine E. Werner, Verda A. Davis, Jason J. Burmeister, Francois Pomerleau, Jorge E. Quintero, Peter Huettl, Greg A. Gerhardt

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

11 Scopus citations


A major goal of our research is to develop an implantable device for routine amperometric recordings of l-glutamate and other neurotransmitters in the mammalian central nervous system. Specifically, we wanted to develop a microelectrode that is (1) mass produced such that other laboratories can easily utilize the same recording technology, (2) designed to study multiple brain regions and neurotransmitters in various in vitro and in vivo systems, and (3) configured for "self-referencing" recordings, which allows for measurements of resting or tonic levels of neurotransmitters, cross-checking of the selectivity of the microelectrode measures, and improved signal-to-noise ratio by noise subtraction. The present chapter documents our current capabilities of measuring l-glutamate and several other neurotransmitters with rapid temporal resolution using mass-fabricated microelectrode arrays formed on ceramic. We have routinely demonstrated that these electrodes have fast temporal resolution (<1 s), excellent spatial resolution (microns), and low detection limits (≤200 nM) and cause minimal damage (50-100 μm) to surrounding brain tissue. While not a comprehensive assessment of the technology, this chapter contains a large amount of information regarding the fabrication, use, and potential pitfalls of this technology.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMicroelectrode Biosensors
Number of pages28
StatePublished - 2013

Publication series

ISSN (Print)0893-2336
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6045


  • Amperometry
  • Biosensor
  • Glutamate
  • In vivo electrochemistry
  • Microelectrode array
  • Neurotransmission
  • Photolithography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • General Neuroscience


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