Microstructural evaluation of deep-fat fried chicken nugget batter coating using confocal laser scanning microscopy

Akinbode A. Adedeji, Li Liu, Michael O. Ngadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Porosity and pore size distribution are very important microstructural properties of fried foods needed in process optimization and product development. The objective of this study was to characterize the pore properties and quantify fat distribution in deep-fat fried chicken nuggets batter coating using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Samples were fried at three temperatures namely 170, 180 and 190 °C. Detached batter coatings were stained non-covalently and 2-D images were obtained at fluorescence and reflection modes of the microscope. The images were analyzed for fat and pore distribution. Fat distribution obtained from image analysis was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the frying temperature and time, and it decreased within the depth of the sample thickness. There was a strong correlation between fat distribution and fat content obtained by the conventional method at two temperatures, 180 and 190 °C. Porosity ranged between 4.97% and 32.7% and was significantly influenced by frying temperature. Pore size varied approximately between 1.20 and 550 μm. Frying process led to the formation of more micropores (pores < 40 μm) and bigger (pore ≥ 216 μm) pores.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)49-57
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Food Engineering
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2011

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors would like to appreciate the funding support of Natural Science and Engineering Research Council (NSERC) of Canada. Authors also thank Prof. Marilyn Scott of Institute of Parasitology, McGill University, for allowing the use of her Cryostat at no cost.


  • CLSM
  • Chicken nuggets
  • Coating
  • Confocal
  • Fat distribution
  • Porosity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Microstructural evaluation of deep-fat fried chicken nugget batter coating using confocal laser scanning microscopy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this